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Middle earth ages Timeline

The History of Middle-earth (The Book of Lost Tales Part One [1983] • The Book of Lost Tales Part Two [1984] • The Lays of Beleriand [1985] • The Shaping of Middle-earth [1986] • The Lost Road and Other Writings [1987] • The Return of the Shadow [1988] • The Treason of Isengard [1989] • The War of the Ring [1990] • Sauron Defeated [1992] • Morgoth's Ring [1993] • The War of the Jewels [1994] • The Peoples of Middle-earth [1996] • Index [2006] Tolkien created a long and rich history for Middle-earth, and meant it to be an alternative mythic history for our own world. By his reckoning we are living in the Sixth Age. The earliest ages encompass the creation of the world, the first manifestation of evil, and the awakening and early history of the elves. More Lord of the Rings feature

Timeline of Arda The One Wiki to Rule Them All Fando

  1. Ages Of Middle Earth Timeline - The Earth Images Revimage.Org. Lord of the rings timeline explained rings charts middle earth what is earth s geological time scale timeline of the middle earth ro dnedain kings of gondor stewards Interactive Timeline Of Middle Earth VisualoopVisual Timeline Of The One Ring LotrEllen Brage DeveloperTimeline Of The.
  2. Here's a basic rundown of the timeline of Middle Earth: Years of the Trees (about 1,500 years of the trees = 14,000 years of the sun. The elves awake in the year 1,050, which in sun years is 10,080.) Starts with the creation of the Two Trees of Valino
  3. The following five timelines show the geologic time scale. The first shows the entire time from the formation of the Earth to the present, but this gives little space for the most recent eon. Therefore, the second timeline shows an expanded view of the most recent eon
  4. The earth is shaken. The shores of Beleriand are formed and bays are created on the North. Over the next two years Melkor is defeated, and retreats into Utumno. 1092: 10,464: The siege of Utumno begins. North is desolated and the Sea widened. 1099: 10,530 : The Battle of the Powers ends, as the Valar storm the final defenses of Utumno

Middle Ages - Lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and is variously demarcated by historians as ending with the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, merging into the Renaissance and the Age of Discovery. Early Middle Ages (also called Dark Ages End in Middle-earth of the Fellowship of the Ring. 121: 1542 : Death of Arwen Undómiel in Lórien. 171: 1592 : A copy of the Thain's Book is completed in Minas Tirith by Findegil, the King's Writer; probably commissioned by an unnamed great-grandson of Peregrin Took. The copy is sent to the Shire, where it is kept in the library at Great Smials. 18 Fourth Age is accounted for in Shire Reckoning. 1427Will Whitfoot resigns as mayor. Sam is elected as Mayor of the Shire. Pippin marries Diamond of Long Cleeve. Aragorn enacts an edict to prohibit the entry of Men into the Shire; he also liberates the Shire as a Free People under the Sceptre of Annúminas' protection.. 1430Faramir, son of Pippin, is born Until there is not enough data about them we are here just showing these 3 main ages right now: First Age (Túrin, Tuor, Beren) Second Age (Númenor) Third Age (Hobbit, Lord of the Rings) The ages are fully zoom- & drag-able. And much more..

Melkor steals the Silmarils from Fëanor, killing Finwë, and returns to Middle-earth. Y. T. 1496. The Noldor pledge to leave Valinor and follow Melkor to Middle-earth to reclaim the Silmarils Third Age Timeline. 2. Isildur commits the rule of the South Kingdom of Gondor to his nephew Meneldil son of Anárion. He plants a seedling of the White Tree in the city of Minas Anor. The Disaster of the Gladden Fields occurs and Isildur and his three oldest sons are killed. The One Ring is lost in the Anduin. 3 This age was characterized by the rise (eventually with increased insolence) of Númenor, the rise.

Ages is the term used to divide and describe certain periods of history in Middle-earth. Ages do not have exact lengths of time. A new one usually starts after the current Dark Lord is overthrown and/or some catastrophic change happens to the world. There are four Ages of Middle-earth: The First Age, which is covered by most of The Silmarillion. It begins with either the awakening of the Elves. Middle-earth. After many years of absence, Gandalf comes to the Shire to warn Frodo about the One Ring. Meanwhile Sauron sends the Nazgl forth in search of it. Frodo and his companions flee the Shire and meet up with Aragorn. They take the Ring to Rivendell where it is decided that the Ring must be destroyed in the fires of Mount Doom

Middle Ages. 527: A Martian named Volthoom merges his own life force with a Green Lantern ring, tainting it. The ring is cast out into space as punishment. 555: Sandan is born. Sandan begins exploring. 572: Niko is born. 666, June 6th: Vylaela is born (supposedly prior to this date). 800's: A pooka is born. Vylaela is summoned by an Irish mage Some of the Eldar arrive in Aman; the Noontide of Valinor begins. The Sindar flourish in Beleriand. At the end of the age, Luthien is born. XI. The second age of the Chaining. Dwarves enter Beleriand and settle the Ered Luin. At the end of this age, Thingol builds Menegroth. XII. The third age of the Chaining. Evil things begin to stir in Middle-earth

Middle-earth Timeline - InfoPleas

Middle Ages. Most historians define the Middle Ages as a historical period from 500 AD to 1450 AD. While there was a suppression of knowledge and learning during this time, with the clergy dominating as the literate class, the medieval times continued to be a period full of discovery and invention Divided into three periods: Paleolithic (or Old Stone Age), Mesolithic (or Middle Stone Age), and Neolithic (or New Stone Age), this era is marked by the use of tools by our early human ancestors.

Ages Of Middle Earth Timeline - The Earth Images Revimage

The Middle-earth Cinematic Universe is an unofficial name for the universe of the Tolkien films and media connected to and/or related to the films. It includes the six Peter Jackson films as well as the new Amazon TV series coming soon (#LOTRonPrime). 1 NEWS! 2 The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring 3 The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers 4 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the. Third Age Of Middle Earth Timeline. By Hilman Rojak | December 13, 2018. 0 Comment. 9 charts to rule them all vox rings tv show release date cast gondor 978 613 0 06493 8 6130064934 timeline of the middle earth middle earth tolkien gateway. Third Age The One Wiki To Rule Them All Fandom (Unfinished Tales of N menor and Middle-Earth: Part Two: The Second Age) Tal-Elmar (SA 1800 2251?) (The History of Middle-Earth Volume 12: The Peoples of Middle-Earth: Part IV: Unfinished Tales) Akallab th. The Downfall of N menor (SA 3319) (6,941 BCE) (The Silmarillion) The Lord of the Rings. Annals of the Kings and Rulers. I Lord of the Rings: The Four Ages of Middle-earth, Explained. There's more to Middle-earth than the events of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. Here are the Four Ages and the major milestones that mark them. By Rita Dorsch Published Feb 21, 2021. Share Share Tweet Email. 0. Comment In J.R.R. Tolkien's history of Middle-earth, time has been split into Four Ages with each Age lasting approximately 3,000 years, give or take. Both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings stories take place late in Middle-earth's Third Age, ending with the beginning of the Fourth Age as Aragorn becomes king in Return of the King

The Timeline is divided into three major sections: Age of Patriarchs—Creation to c. 1660 BC. The timeline begins with Adam in Eden, then on to Noah and the Flood and the birth of Israel through Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Age of Israel—c. 1660 BC to c. 457 B Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that the Earth is about 4,570 million years old (expressed with m.y.a., i.e. million years ago, or Ma as in it dates from 4570 Ma). The geological or deep time of Earth's past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period

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  1. The Middle Ages (A.D. 476 -A.D. 1450 ) The Middle Ages is also known as the Medieval or Post-Classical era. Historians refer to the early part of this period as the Dark Ages due to the loss of recorded history after the fall of the Roman Empire in A.D. 476
  2. Earth's Timeline and History. 4,567,000,000 years ago, Earth was covered in molten lava. Earth was completely unrecognizable. In its earliest stage of formation, it was uninhabitable as it clumped from a cloud of dust. Since about 1,000,000,000 years ago, Earth had its first signs of life. Single-celled organisms consumed the sun's energy
  3. g solar radiation at 65°N (Berger and Loutre 1991).In contrast, glacial-interglacial cycles last ~100,000 years (middle, black line) and consist of stepwise cooling events followed by rapid war
  4. Bronze working introduced to Egypt . 1795 BCE - 1750 BCE. Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon . 1787 BCE. Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin. c. 1772 BCE. The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world. c. 1760 BCE - c. 1757 BCE. Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari
  5. This page includes a timeline, combining the Canon, Monolith Timeline and some Non-canon media. 1 First Age 2 Second Age 3 Third Age 4 Quest for Erebor - TA 2941 4.1 Battle of Five Armies 5 Between the Quests 5.1 Campaign to kill the Black Hand 5.2 War for Mordor continues 6 War of the Ring 7 Fourth Age 8 Continuity 9 Events That Need Placing The Hobbits return to the Shire Scouring of the.

Detailed Timeline of the Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is referred to the period of European history which marks the fall of Western Roman Empire in the 5th Century and the beginning of the Renaissance or the Age of Discovery in the 15th Century The Dark Ages Timeline Timeline Description: The Dark Ages were a time in history when the population was declining and there was little literature or other arts. It gave way to a more enlightened time. This is a timeline of those years And when that ship passed an end was come in Middle-earth of the Fellowship of the Ring (p. 378, The Return of the King) Middle-earth timeline: Fourth Age, 5-120 Today's reading comes from: The Return of the King , pages 377-37 Scientists have recorded five significant ice ages throughout the Earth's history: the Huronian (2.4-2.1 billion years ago), Cryogenian (850-635 million years ago), Andean-Saharan (460-430 mya.

First we have Mithlond, a port settled by elves in the first year of the Second Age. The harbor is located on the northwestern shores of the continent and it becomes Middle-earth's primary. Earth's beginnings can be traced back 4.5 billion years, but human evolution only counts for a tiny speck of its history. The Prehistoric Period—or when there was human life before records.

Timeline of Events in the Middle Ages180 The death of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius marks the end of the Pax Romana, or Roman peace. Years of instability follow, and although Rome recovers numerous times, this is the beginning of Rome's three-century decline. Source for information on Timeline of Events in the Middle Ages: Middle Ages Reference Library dictionary Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor releases today and will help bridge the gap in the LOTR timeline between The Hobbit and the original trilogy. As such, you'll be running into a notable character. Histography is an interactive timeline that spans across 14 billion years of history, from the Big Bang to 2015. / Earth Formation / Seeds Of Life / Age Of Fish / Age Of Reptiles / Age Of Mammals / Stone Age / Bronze Age / Iron Age / Middle Ages / Renaissance / Industrial Age

Geologic time scale - Wikipedi

The Neolithic Era or New Stone age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending betwee.. 750 AD - 1500 AD. From 750-1500 AD, the Sahara Desert was filled with thriving civilizations. Muslim kings ruled cities, and Obas ruled rainforest civilizations. Swahili people became rich through trade. Traders in North Africa crossed the desert in caravans, with as many as 10,000 camels with goods. At the southern edge, goods were moved to. Descarga gratuita de The complete timeline of middleearth MP3. Descargue el archivo mp3 The complete timeline of middleearth a una calidad de audio de 320 kbps. Archivo de música The complete timeline of middleearth Timeline. The Middle Ages, or Medieval Times, in Europe was a long period of history from 500 AD to 1500 AD. That's 1000 years! It covers the time from the fall of the Roman Empire to the rise of the Ottoman Empire. This was a time of castles and peasants, guilds and monasteries, cathedrals and crusades. Great leaders such as Joan of Arc and. Middle Ages. The accession and coronation of Henry II took place on the same day. He was not only king of England, but also ruled over most of Wales, Normandy, Anjou, Gascony and other parts of.

The practice of medicine in the Middle Ages was rooted in the Greek tradition. Hippocrates, considered the father of Medicine, described the body as made up of four humors—yellow bile, phlegm, black bile, and blood—and controlled by the four elements—fire, water, earth, and air A Chronology of the Middle Ages (500-1500) 500 Clovis, founder of the Frankish state, conquers most of France and Belgium, converting his territories to Western Catholic Christianity.He founds the Merovingian dynasty and passes his kingdom on to his sons, who begin fighting one another for additional territory

Timeline - Tolkien Gatewa

  1. In my opinion this was a very important time in the Middle Ages to the fact that this plague caused the estimated deaths of 25 million people. By the 14th century this city became the largest city on Earth. 1035. Middle/Dark Ages Timeline Project. England History. 100 Year War By Bryce and Group. 100 Years War
  2. Death of Otto III, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire at age 21 in Viterbo, Italy Otto III , Year 1002 , 1000s , January 23 , 11th Century , Holy Roman Empire , History of Germany , Deaths , Middle Ages , Politics , Europe , Earth , Solar System , Milky Wa
  3. Map Of Europe In the Middle Ages. Europe is a continent located very in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allocation of Eurasia

Using this Middle Age Timeline, students can visually understand the important events that occurred during the Middle Ages. There are many important events that happened during the Middle Ages. It is often difficult to keep the events in the correct order. This timeline is a great reference for you Thanks to a series of maps that, starting in February 2019, Amazon began releasing on Twitter, we know that the series takes place during the Second Age of Middle-earth

The Earth is at least as old as its oldest rocks. The oldest rock minerals found on Earth so far are crystals that are at least 4.404 billion years old. These tiny crystals were found in Australia. Likewise, Earth cannot be older than the solar system. The oldest possible age of Earth is 4.57 billion years old, the age of the solar system. mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 9 Introduction to the Middle Ages Eras History is.the.record.of.past.events.and.times..The.three.

List of time periods - Wikipedi

Arwen was born in 241 of the Third Age. She had two older brothers named Elladan and Elrohir. In 2509 of the Third Age, Arwen's mother Celebrian was attacked and tortured by Orcs at the Redhorn Gate. Her sons Elladan and Elrohir rescued her, but she had been emotionally wounded and she left Middle-Earth in 2510 First, that showrunners JD Payne and Patrick McKay are likely interested in telling stories across a vast swath of Middle-earth's ages, connected by the history of the 20 Rings of Power, much as. Though the Middle Ages were considered a dark period in history, this era largely contributed to many different art styles today because of its expansive time frame and allure. Its wide range of culture and influence is a true testament to the evolution of art, and I hope you continue to learn more about these amazing timelines on your own Earth History and Geologic Time. Can you believe that Earth was created approximately 4.5 billion years ago? Many things have gone on in Earth's history from how it all began to where it is today Adventures in Middle-earth is a tabletop RPG published by Cubicle 7 based on the works of JRR Tolkien. Using the open gaming license of Dungeons & Dragons 5th edition, Cubicle 7 has made a wonderful Middle-earth campaign setting with new classes, cultures, and Hobbits! It is set in the time between The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings

Timeline/Fourth Age - Tolkien Gatewa

Númenor was magically raised from the sea and given to the race of Men. During the Second Age, Men would sail to Middle Earth and later started to grow to power, only to have Sauron start to gain power over the area too. Sauron poisoned the king of Númenor's, Ar-Pharazon, mind after he became obsessed with eternal life Well, the Warhammer Age of Sigmar website has received a series of awesome updates to prepare for the new edition, and one of the latest features to be added is a rather excellent timeline. Take a look at the kind of detail it goes into

Both Earth-1 and Earth-2 are erased in 1986 (in-story year 1985) with the mega-crossover event Crisis on Infinite Earths. The 1985-1986 Crisis functioned as DC's second major reboot—the first being the Silver Age reboot that slowly occurred from the mid 1950s through the early 1960s In the Middle Ages, as in later periods, drawings were used to illustrate scientific and scholarly works. The conventions of representation and systems of thought familiar to medieval audiences often confound the modern viewer; careful study of medieval diagrams underscores the concern of medieval thinkers for both clarity and elegance in. One of the best games of 2014 was Middle-earth: Shadow of Mordor. The thrilling third-person action game set in J.R.R. Tolkien's fantasy universe continued with the sequel Middle-earth: Shadow. The Middle ages has been a hot topic for centuries, which period was from the 5th all the way to the 15th century in Europe and the Middle East. As the timeline below, we are introducing some remarkable events at Europe and Middle East during the Medieval periods Timeline for the Middle Ages from 500 A.D. to 1500 A.D.Summary of Events TimelineTimeline Key DatesMiddle Ages Timeline of Key eventsMiddle Ages History Timelineof Key Events1066 -11541066-1087The reign of King William the ConquerorThe Battle of Hastings and the defeat of Harold GodwinsonTh

A.M. Celâl Şengör, in Encyclopedia of Geology (Second Edition), 2021. Medieval Geology. The term Middle Ages first appeared in 1469 as Media Tempestas, and ever since has had widely differing temporal limits. The most common are the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 480 CE marking its beginning and the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453 CE marking its end Main Events/Places. More Info. BRONZE AGE: 3500 B.C. - A.D. 1500. With the beginning of writing came the first period considered historical. This was still a very ancient period, part of the Bronze Age, and before the time when the Trojan War, if it happened, would have taken place. Writing Begins A timeline giving details of the most important and significant historical periods of the World including dates and locations Dark Ages - 500 CE - 1000 CE. Kofun Period. Japan. 300 CE - 600 CE. Gupta Empire. North India. 300 CE - 500 CE. Anglo Saxon Period. England. 410 CE - 1066 CE. Middle Ages - 1000 CE - 1500 CE. Srivijaya.

Timeline of historical periods Print PDF Zoom Out Prehistory Mesopotamia 3500 BC - 559 BC Prehistory 3500 BC - 300 Start of Prehistory High Middle Ages (Feudalism) 1000 - 1450 European military expansion during this period. Kediri (Indonesia) 1045 - 1221 Mahjapahit (Indonesia). The first resource most fans discover is Appendix B of The Return of the King, The Tale of Years. It's an excellent place to start, the Third Age in particular is well documented, and the LotR Years even more so. The Second and particularly Firs..

Five Ice Ages Huronian . Researchers have identified five separate ice ages. The oldest of these is the Huronian glaciation which occurred 2.4 to 2.1 billion years ago! During this time, the only living organisms on earth were unicellular. Temperatures were so low that the entire globe was covered in ice and snow Cartography during the Middle Ages. During this middle age times, Muslim scholars continued and advanced on the mapmaking traditions of earlier cultures, mostly following Ptolemy's methods; but they also started using the knowledge, notes and writings of the explorers and merchants during their travels across the Muslim world Earth's hottest periods—the Hadean, the late Neoproterozoic, the Cretaceous Hot Greenhouse, the PETM—occurred before humans existed. Those ancient climates would have been like nothing our species has ever seen. Modern human civilization, with its permanent agriculture and settlements, has developed over just the past 10,000 years or so Age - An age is a unit of geological time shorter than an epoch, usually lasting several million years. Anthropocene - A proposed era denoting the time when human activity started having a global impact on the Earth's surface, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Archean, Archaean - An eon of geologic time extending from about 4000 to 2500 million years. Medieval Timeline. Students fill in the missing dates to complete this medieval timeline of events from the Dark Ages (circa 400-1000), the High Middle Ages (1000-1300), and the Late Middle Ages (1300-1500). They also color a map to show Charlemagne's Empire and the Holy Roman Empire

Fourth Age Timeline - Council of Elron

X lead tin yellow (13th century - 18th century) An opaque yellow with good covering power. It's a Lead-Tin oxide, discovere more ». X smalt (15th century - 18th century) It's a ground blue potassium glass containing cobalt used among the 15th an more ». X indian yellow (15th century - 1883) Clear, deep and luminescent yellow pigment The Little Ice Age was not a true ice age, but the cooler period after the end of the Medieval Warm Period. It is generally considered to have started by 1350 AD (663 years BP) 49 and it pretty much ended by 1850 AD (163 years BP) 50. In Central Greenland, temperatures drop about 1.5°C from 964 years BP to 597 years BP, which is a significant.

Arda Maps - Interactive Tolkien Map

Main Article Paleolithic Age. The term human denotes any creature belonging to the genus Homo.The first species of human was Homo habilis, which evolved in Sub-Saharan Africa ca. 2,500,000 BC.Since Homo habilis was a maker of stone tools, the evolution of this species marks the beginning of the stone age. 56. The stone age can be divided into the Paleolithic (Old Stone Age), during which all. Except Tolkien said that the Third Age of Middle-earth ended 6,000 years ago and the continent of Middle-earth itself was on our planet and is now known as Europe. The British Isles (Great Britain and Ireland) used to be the Shire. - Wad Cheber May 28 '15 at 0:42 The Middle Ages was the middle period in a schematic division of European history into three 'ages': Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization. It is commonly considered as having lasted from the end of the Western Ro.. There are many other examples that show that magic is in the process of winding down, at least by the Third Age. In addition to the reasons given by Ernest Adams, I'd say it's part of the general superiority of the past to the present in Middle-Ea..

Top Ten Events of the Middle Ages - Timeline. By TheCubingKid. Period: 450 to 1500. Top Ten Events of the Middle Ages - Timeline 476. Fall of the Roman empire The fall of the Roman empire was a massive event in history. There are many reasons why including. They were the most advanced civilization at that time The Atlas of Middle-earth by Karen Wynn Fonstad. Timeline. September 22, Year 2890 of the Third Age: Bilbo was born in Bag End, Hobbiton, the Shire. He was the son of Bungo Baggins and Belladonna Took. 2926: Bilbo's father Bungo died. 2934: Bilbo's mother Belladonna died The New Notion Club Archives is an open project, an encyclopedia dedicated to Expanded Arda, non-canonical sub-creation within J. R. R. Tolkien's World of Arda. Originally dedicated to support and preserve abandoned, out-of-print and fan-made material dedicated to roleplaying games, as time passed this Wiki has moved its focus onto the broader.

Timeline of the Elves in Tolkien's works | VisualAges Of Middle Earth Timeline - The Earth Images RevimageInteractive Timeline of Middle Earth - Visualoop

Middle Ages History Infographics cover event on Medieval period like; Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, Constantinople, Age of Viking, Islamic and Dynasties. 100+ Filming Locations Featured in BBC's Planet Earth . A Timeline of His Revolutionary Life . Courtship and Marriage Through the Ages This timeline is based on material first published in Reunion: the Journal of Middle-earth Studies, issue 1, June 1996. The Fourth Age. JRR Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Aerlinn's Notes on the History of the Parma Taratirion & the Commentaries of Rómendil, published in Reunion, the Journal of Middle-earth Studies, issue 5, June 1997. The. Middle-earth Universe Series. 26 primary works • 46 total works. Includes: * The Lord of the Rings. * Unfinished Tales. * The History of Middle-Earth. The Hobbit, or There and Back Again. by J.R.R. Tolkien. 4.28 · 3,110,722 Ratings · 52,485 Reviews · published 1937 · 1282 editions Timeline for Gondor inThe Lord of the Rings. The region of Gondor becomes known as the home to many Numenorean colonists. Refugees from Numenor led from Isildur and Anarion were given warm reception upon by the revival of said Numenoreans. They accept Elendil's claim to kingship over them. Eventually taking the ring to Gondor, Isildur records why he kept the ring in the end of the Second Age. It is an incredible view of how the world looked during the ice age. An online mapmaker has revealed a unique map showing the world as it would have looked 14,000 years ago, when the last ice age. The Earth has experienced at least five major ice ages in its 4.57 billion year history: the Huronian glaciation (2.4 to 2.1 billion years ago), the Sturtian/Marinoan glaciation (710 to 640 mya), the Andean-Saharan glaciation (460 to 430 mya), the Karoo Ice Age (350 to 260 mya) and the most recent Ice Age, which is currently ongoing (40 to 0 mya)